Tuesday, January 26, 2010

RHCE RHCT RH302 Exam Demos

Pass-Guaranteed Demo


Saturday, January 23, 2010

Testking RHCE Exam Simulator

RedHat RH302 Exam

When we first started offering the RH302 exam questions and answers and exam simulator, we never dreamed we would be making the claims that we do now in the form of our unbelievable guarantee. TestKing.com GUARANTEES that you will pass your RH302 exam on your first attempt after using one of our RH302 training products. That's right, with the 100% pass rate, the exam tools that we have created for you are so good - we can't help but guarantee your results.

Known also as the RedHat Red Hat Certified Engineer on Redhat Enterprise Linux 5 (Labs) (RH302), this exam plays an integral role in obtaining your certification. All RedHat certification exams are extremely detailed and cover many different technological areas. We designed the RH302 questions and answers for this very purpose, to prepare you for the unexpected. Beyond the testing center, the skills you learn and the knowledge you confirm using the RH302 practice exams and exam simulators will translate directly into your daily work environment.

When available, take advantage of the TestKing RH302 Value Pack and save time and money while developing your skills to pass your 'Red Hat Certified Engineer on Redhat Enterprise Linux 5 (Labs) Exam' and grab that RedHat certification. Let us help you climb that ladder of success and pass your RH302 now!

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RHCE RHCT pre-assessment

Before You Take your RHCE RHCT Exam:

If you pass all these pre-assessment then you can directly go for RHCE exam, if you are doing good only for RH033 and RH133 then you should go for RHCT or need more preparation.

RH033 exam for RHCT

RH133 exam for RHCT

RH253 exam for RHCE

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

Linux Timesaving Techniques For Dummies

Linux Timesaving Technique For Dummies provides experienced and first-time Linux users with concise, step-by-step, timesaving,powerful techniques to help them perform tasks efficiently. The techniques, broken down into task-oriented topic areas, are delivered without technical jargon and in the For Dummies friendly, easy-to-understand style. The book corresponds with the latest releases of the Fedora Core, SUSE, and Mandrake distributions. This book is organized into parts groups of techniques about a common subject that will save you time and help you get your system running better. Each technique is written to be independent of the others, so you only need to implement those techniques that are important to you and your users. From time to time, we may send you to another technique to implement a feature that we’ll be using in our current technique we just don’t want to waste valuable space repeating ourselves. Each of the partsis about a different facet of a Linux system so you can scan the part title easily, looking for problemsolving techniques that will help you, quick. It has over 60 techniques that help users perform end-user, system administration, and development tasks in many areas, including the following:

Desktop File system, RPM, Databases, Internet Server, Email Server, Networking, System monitoring, Security, Data Back-up and recovery, Programming (e.g., C and PHP), and Linux Kernel.

Over 60 techniques that help you save time by…

* Controlling time-consuming tasks

* Improving your system security

* Getting the most from your file system

* Automating repetitive tasks

* Tweaking the kernel on your Linux system

* Networking like a professional

The Dummies Way

* Tricks and tips for working smarter

* Explanations in plain English

* "Get in, get out" information

* Contents arranged by technique

* Advice that goes beyond the basics

* A dash of humor and fun



RedHat Linux Security and Optimization Study Guide

Red Hat Linux Security and Optimization is a reference for power-users and administrators covering all security issues, including Filesystems Security, Securing root accounts and Firewalls. Application performance benchmarking will also be covered. This book introduces you to many application-specific performance and benchmarking techniques and shows you how to tune your computer as well as your networks. This book covers all the primary Red Hat Linux Applications such as Apache Web Server, WuFTP, FTP server, BIND DNS server, Sendmail SMTP server and focuses on how to enhance security for each of them. It also shows you how to secure NFS and Samba Server, as well as the Apache Web Server.

Contents :-

Part I System Performance

Chapter 1 Performance Basics

Chapter 2 Kernel Tuning

Chapter 3 Filesystem Tuning

Part II Network and Service Performance

Chapter 4 Network Performance

Chapter 5 Web Server Performance

Chapter 6 E-Mail Server Performance

Chapter 7 NFS and Samba Server Performance

Part III System Security

Chapter 8 Kernel Security

Chapter 9 Securing Files and Filesystems

Chapter 10 PAM

Chapter 11 OpenSSL

Chapter 12 Shadow Passwords and OpenSSH

Chapter 13 Secure Remote Passwords

Chapter 14 xinetd

Part IV Network Service Security

Chapter 15 Web Server Security

Chapter 16 DNS Server Security

Chapter 17 E-Mail Server Security

Chapter 18 FTP Server Security

Chapter 19 Samba and NFS Server Security

Part V Firewalls

Chapter 20 Firewalls, VPNs, and SSL Tunnels

Chapter 21 Firewall Security Tools

Appendix A IP Network Address Classification

Appendix B Common Linux Commands

Appendix C Internet Resources

Appendix D Dealing with Compromised Systems

Appendix E What’s On the CD-ROM



RHEL 5 Administration Unleashed

RHEL 5 Administration Unleashed

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Administration Unleashed blends step-by-step instructions with just enough conceptual knowledge to help RHEL 5 administrators on a daily basis. Why another Linux book you might ask? I have been writing about Linux for years and reading Linux books for longer. When I first started learning Linux, I was frustrated with the lack of detail in most books. I would look up a topic, read all the theory and conceptual sections, and then turn the page expecting to see the actual instructions for implementing what I had read about.

Topics covered include:

* Installing on a single system or on multiple systems simultaneously with Kickstart
* Installing, updating, and removing software with YUM and Red Hat Network
* Navigating the Filesystem from the command line
* Managing storage with partitions, LVM, and RAID
* Using access control lists and disk quotas
* Managing users and groups efficiently
* Performing backups and rapid recovery
* Automating tasks with scripts and scheduling them with cron
* Setting up unified identity management services
* Administering network services for file sharing, network connectivity, an secure
remote login
* Monitoring and tuning system resources, the kernel, and applications
* Protecting against security vulnerabilities with SELinux and ExecShield
* Setting up a firewall with IPTables
* Customing the Linux Auditing System
* Running multiple operating systems concurrently with Virtualization



Part I: Installation and Configuration
Installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Post-Installation Configuration
Operating System Updates

Part II: Operating System Core Concepts
Understanding Linux Concepts
Working with RPM Software
Analyzing Hardware
Managing Storage
64-Bit, Multi-Core, and Hyper-Threading Technology Processors

Part III: System Administration
Managing Users and Groups
Techniques for Backup and Recovery
Automating Tasks with Scripts

Part IV: Network Services
Identity Management
Network File Sharing
Granting Network Connectivity with DHCP
Creating a Web Server with the Apache HTTP Server
Hostname Resolution with BIND
Securing Remote Logins with OpenSSH
Setting Up an Email Server with Sendmail
Explaining Other Common Network Services

Part V: Monitoring and Tuning
Monitoring System Resources
Monitoring and Tuning the Kernel
Monitoring and Tuning Application

Part VI: Security
Protecting Against Intruders with Security-Enhanced Linux
Configuring a Firewall
Linux Auditing System

A Installing Proprietary Kernel Modules
B Creating Virtual Machines
C Preventing Security Breaches with ExecShield
D Troubleshooting


Redhat Linux EMC HP Hitachi Certification Exam Simulator.

Visual CertExam Suite is a desktop test engine designed specifically for certification exam preparation. It allows you to create, edit and take practice tests in the environment very similar to a real exam. Visual CertExam Suite includes two applications:
Visual CertExam Designer allows you to create and edit your own professional practice exams.Visual CertExam Manager is designed for taking exams created with Visual CertExam Designer.

The most realistic certification exam simulation.
You can work with most of the question types used in certification exams (Multiple Choice, Fill in the Blank, Select and Place, Point and Shoot, Hot Area, Create a Tree, Build List and Reorder, Drop and Connect).
Ability to create case study based exams.
The question preview feature allows the author see exactly how a question will appear during an examination.
Supports question text formatting, including bullets, numbering and alignment.
All exam data (including images) is stored in a single file that simplifies copying and distribution of created exams.
Printing and print preview of exam files.
Supports the most popular image formats: GIF and JPEG.
The Import Wizard lets automatically create exam files from existing text files or RTF-documents with questions.
Ability to work in a local network using file sharing.
You can group questions into sections based on exam topics.
Each exam file can contain multiple instances of an exam (Exam A, Exam B, Exam C and so on).
You can set a password for opening an exam file in Visual CertExam Designer to prevent unauthorized copying, editing and printing of the exam data.
You can restrict the ability to start an exam by setting a password.
Score history tracking.
Doesn't require the installation of additional software.

EMC Storage Certification Exams included:


Hitachi Storage Certification Exams included:-


HP Proliant Server Certification Exams included:-

HP0-053 Enterprise Integration and Management of HP ProLiant Servers.vce
HP0-055 Implementing HP ProLiant Servers Brain dumps.vce
HP0-055 Implementing HP ProLiant Servers.vce
HP0-065 Planning and Designing ProLiant Solutions for the Enterprise.vce
HP0-500 HP Proliant Server Maintenance.vce
HP.Actualtests HP0-697 HP ProLiant Systems Technologies Exam.vce
HP.Actualtests HP0-794 Implementing Windows 2003 on HP ProLiant Clusters.vce
HP.ActualTests.by.SSB HP0-794 Implementing Windows 2003 on HP ProLiant Clusters.vce
HP.Actualtests.HP0-645 Implementing HP ProLiant Servers.vce
HP.ActualTests.HP0-725 Implementing Enterprise Integration and Management of HP ProLiant.vce
HP.ExamPrepGuide HP0-725 Implementing Enterprise Integration and Management of HP ProLiant.vce
HP.Pass4Sure.HP0-698 Supporting the HP ProLiant Storage Server Product Family.vce
HP.TestKing HP0-645 Implementing HP ProLiant Servers.vce
HP.TestKing HP0-683 Implementing HP ProLiant Servers.vce
HP.TestKing.HP0-683 Implementing HP ProLiant Servers.vce
HP.TestKing.HP0-697 HP ProLiant Systems Technologies Exam.vce
HP.TestKing.HP0-794 Implementing Windows 2003 on HP ProLiant Clusters.vce
HP.TestKing.v1.0.HP0-725 Implementing Enterprise Integration and Management of HP ProLiant.vce
HP.TestKing.v3.1.214 HP0-725 Implementing Enterprise Integration and Management of HP ProLiant.vce
HP.TestKing.v4.0.HP0-725 Implementing Enterprise Integration and Management of HP ProLiant.vce
HP.TestKing_HP0-697 HP ProLiant Systems Technologies Exam.vce
HP.TestKing_HP0-725 Implementing Enterprise Integration and Management of HP ProLiant.vce

RedHat Linux Certification Exams:-

Red Hat 1.vce
Red Hat 2.vce
Red Hat 3.vce

Visual CertExam Suite premium included in the download link with all exams file.
Play all the .vce exam files in the Visual CertExam Suite package exam simulator.



Apache is probably the most popular Linux-based Web server application in use.Web sites both personal and commercial can be very rewarding exercises as they share your interests with the world and allow you to meet new people with whom to develop friendships or transact business.Unfortunately,even the best Web sites can be impersonal as they frequently only provide information that the designer expects the visitor to need. E-mail, although ancient in comparison to newer personalized interactive Internet technologies, such as IP telephony and instant messaging, has the advantage of being able to relay documents and other information without interrupting the addressee. This allows them to schedule a response when they are better prepared to answer, a valuable quality when replies need to be complex.

Video Contents :-

01. Introduction & Course Outline
02. Introduction To Apache
03. Installing Apache on Linux
04. Installing Apache on Windows
05. Configuring Apache on Linux
06. Managing Content on Apache Server
07. Configuring MySQL on Apache
08. Configuring PHP on Apache
09. Apache Web Server Admin
10. Security Testing Apache
11. Securing Apache
12. Best Practices to Running Apache



LinuxCBT RegEx Edition

LinuxCBT RegEx Edition focuses on the application of POSIX and Perl-compatible
Regular Expressions.

Regular Expressions are critical to efficiently parsing textual data (log file
content, data feeds, files & directories, etc.). RegEx support is included with
Linux | Unix operating systems via ubiquitous tools such as: grep, awk, sed, Perl,
PHP, etc., and provides systems administrator/engineers and developers alike, the
ability search, time-effectively, considerable amounts of textual data, using literals,
character classes, metacharacters, metasequences, etc.

Let LinuxCBT RegEx Edition cost-effectively teach you Regular Expressions!

Recommended Prerequisites for:

* Any LinuxCBT Operating System Course (Classic/EL-4/SUSE/Debian Editions)
o Open mind & determination to master Linux and related open-source applications
o Basic understanding of networking concepts
o Access to a Linux system to follow the exercises

See the URL for all the rest of the information.


LinuxCBT IPv6 Edition

LinuxCBT IPv6 Edition focuses exclusively on the burgeoning Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).

The coursework explores IPv6 implementation on today's mainstream Network Operating Systems (NOSs), including: GNU/Linux, Solaris, Windows and Cisco IOS.

Given the imminent depletion of globally-unique 32-bit IPv4 addresses, and mandates set by the US Government with respect to IPv6-backbone-compliancy by Q2 2008 for government agencies, Information Technology (IT) Network/Systems Engineers/Administrators/Integrators/Directors/etc., are tasked with preparing their backbones and applicable infrastructure(VLANs/DMZs/etc.) to support Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).

LinuxCBT IPv6 Edition will prepare you and/or organization to comfortable integrate IPv6 into your production environments, without negatively impacting IPv4 services.

Recommended Prerequisites for:
Any LinuxCBT OS Edition such as LinuxCBT feat. SUSE® 10 Enterprise Edition
Open mind & determination to master Linux and related open-source applications
Basic MS Windows skills
Basic understanding of networking concepts
Access to a PC to perform all of the installations and exercises


Creating CD-ROM ISO image in Linux

dd is a perfect tool for copy a file, converting and formatting according to the operands. It can create exact CD-ROM ISO image.

This is useful for making backup as well as for hard drive installations require a working the use of ISO images.
How do I use dd command to create an ISO image?

Put CD into CDROM

Do not mount CD. Verify if cd is mounted or not with mount command:

# mount

If cd was mouted automatically unmout it with umount command:

# umount /dev/cdrom


# umount /mnt/cdrom

Create CD-ROM ISO image with dd command:

# dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/tmp/cdimg1.iso


* if=/dev/cdrom: Read from /dev/cdrom (raw format)
* of=/tmp/cdimg1.iso: write to FILE cdimg1.iso i.e. create an ISO image

Now you can use cdimg1.iso for hard disk installation or as a backup copy of cd. Please note that dd command is standard UNIX command and you should able to create backup/iso image under any UNIX like operating system.

13 security practices for SysAdmins

This information has been compiled to help system administrators certify that good security practices are being used BEFORE a computer is connected to the network.

Installing System Patches

It is recommended that based on the requirement, you install every patch recommended for your computer which isn’t
yet installed. Since some patches restore default configurations, it’s important that patches are put in place before any further security precautions are taken.

Before Recording System Defaults

Before starting to record system defaults, a directory should be created to store them. For example;

mkdir /usr/adm/checksIf an unauthorized user does gain access to root privileges on the computer and changes the accounting system, the
administrator will still have an original copy of it for comparison. For safety, the system administrator should check the files against the original about once a month.

Recording SUID and SGID Programs

Before any software is added to the basic operating system release, the system administrator should check for SUID and SGID programs. If unauthorized access occurs, frequently the intruder will leave a program that enables privileged
re-entry. The list of SUID and SGID programs should be stored both on and off the computer. The version on the computer will be used by a daily cron job to check for changes, while the version stored off of the computer will ensure that even if root access is acquired, a record of the system’s original state is available.

The command to list SUID and SGID files is:

find / -type f \( -perm -002000 -o -perm -004000 \)-type f: looks only at regular files-perm: checks for permissions-002000: checks for SGID programs-004000: checks for SUID programsCheck and Record Permissions on all Device Files

By changing the permissions on device files, an unauthorized user can gain access to devices, using this access to change files, impersonate another user, or listen in on conversations. Record the permissions on the device files on and off the computer using:

ls -al /dev/* sort > /usr/adm/checks/devicesPasswords and Shells on System Accounts

Check the system password file to ensure that all accounts have passwords. Many vendors ship their computers with no passwords on the system accounts. System accounts such as bin, lp, and sync should have a ‘*’ for the password field. No account should be left without a password.

Also, the system administrator should check to see if the computer comes with any passwords already assigned. Some
vendors give default passwords to system accounts. Since anyone who has the same type of system knows what the default passwords are, passwords should be changed immediately.

Every account needs to have a shell assigned to it. Most administrative accounts should have /bin/nologin as the shell, which
would disallow crackers from gaining shell access using obscure system holes.

Expire Inactive Accounts

Computers with large numbers of users tend to have accounts that become inactive. The beginning of a new fiscal year often
brings changes in who is using the computer, as users’ funding sources change. The system administrator needs to be sensitive to those accounts that become inactive, and disable them by replacing the password field in the /etc/password file with an ‘*’. If the user has left important data on the computer, eventually they will contact the system administrator to make arrangements to retrieve the data. Once this data is retrieved, the account should be removed.

Restrict Root Login to the Console

The ability to login to the root account should be restricted to the console. Anyone not at the console should have to use ’su’ to
become root. Tries to ’su’ are recorded in a file in /usr/adm such as /usr/adm/sulog, for accounting purposes

Check for Duplicate Groups

Replace any duplicated group with a group of its own. This will remove ambiguity and make membership in a group clearer.

Do Not Establish Guest Accounts

Do not establish accounts for guest usage. These accounts, often appearing as an account with login guest and password
account, are common holes exploited by unauthorized users. Every user of the computer should undergo the same security procedures, receive the same security briefing, and be held accountable to the same standards. When users are finished using the computer, their accounts should be removed from the password file.

‘remote’ Commands

Commands preceded by the letter ‘r’, such as ‘rlogin‘ or ‘rsh‘, should be disabled. They are a source of many attacks on sites
across the Internet. If you must use ‘r’ commands, make sure you filter the TCP ports (512,513,514) at the router; it is important to note this will only stop outsiders from abusing the commands.

Double Check the System Before Long Weekends

Double check the computer before long weekends to ensure there are no security problems with it. A backup just
before a long weekend is advisable.

Do a Monthly System Check

Run the cron script against the cron stored on the removable media in case the unauthorized user gained root access and altered the system without being noticed.

System Security Diary

Keep a diary of the security checks done on the computer and what their results are. Also, document what actions are taken if holes are found or problems occur. If there is a problem, others will want to know what the system administrator has been doing to secure the computer.

VTC – Introduction to UNIX shell

VTC – Unix Shell Fundamentals Tutorials

Author: Mark Virtue
SKU: 33257
ISBN: 1930519915
Release Date: 2001-09-18
Duration: 10 hrs / 90 lessons
Compatibility: Win XP, 2000, 98, NT, Mac OS X, OS 9
Work Files: Yes

UNIX is a family of operating systems. UNIX Shell is common in text-based or command-line UNIX programs. The commands of UNIX shell are compatible with all brands of UNIX, including Linux. This Virtual Training Company tutorial teaches the fundamentals of UNIX Shell even if you have no prior knowledge of UNIX or UNIX Shell commands. Author Mark Virtue helps you get a better understanding thorough demonstrations of processes such as logging in, copying files, combining programs, using telnet, and more. To get started learning from this experienced instructor now, simply click one of the topics below

1. Introduction

About this Course (03:51)
Audience and Prerequisites (03:19)

2. Understanding UNIX

What is UNIX? (07:17)
UNIX History (06:31)
Which UNIX? (07:14)
UNIX Architecture (07:13)

3. Understanding the UNIX Shell

What is the UNIX Shell? (08:59)
Which Shell? (06:59)
Logging In (09:15)
Basic Commands (06:04)
Command Syntax (06:38)
Getting Help (05:11)
Logging Out (02:43)

4. Files and Directories

Working with Files and Directories (07:27)
Commands for Files and Directories Pt 1 (07:54)
Commands for Files and Directories Pt 2 (04:20)
Filenames and File Types (06:48)
Wildcards Pt 1 (05:29)
Wildcards Pt 2 (06:19)
Displaying File Contents (04:00)
Comparing Files (04:44)
Copying, Moving and Renaming Files (07:47)
Deleting Files (05:41)
Hidden Files (06:16)
The “.” and “..” Directories (04:41)
Relative vs Absolute Paths (06:13)
Working with Directories (04:16)
Finding Files (09:37)
Archiving Files (10:29)

5. Security

Users and Groups (07:38)
Security Related Problems (07:18)
File Protection Overview Pt 1 (05:23)
File Protection Overview Pt 2 (04:57)
Changing File Permissions (11:02)
Changing File Ownership (03:26)
Changing File Group (01:27)
A Dangerous Security Loophole (04:34)

6. Combining Programs – Pipes and Filters

Introduction to Combining Programs (00:43)
Standard Output (10:53)
Standard Input (09:16)
Standard Input and Output (05:37)
About Filters (02:20)
Common Filters (08:59)
Searching for Text in Files (08:25)
Standard Error (10:13)

7. Process Control

About Processes Pt 1 (05:10)
About Processes Pt 2 (09:28)
Running Commands Asynchronously (06:37)
Killing Processes (05:55)
Jobs (04:42)
More Process Control (09:08)
Scheduling Commands (06:15)

8. vi – A UNIX Text Editor

Understanding vi (10:01)
Starting vi (04:27)
Manipulating Files in vi Pt 1 (07:35)
Manipulating Files in vi Pt 2 (05:53)
Moving Around Pt 1 (08:07)
Moving Around Pt 2 (07:08)
Basic Editing Pt 1 (08:43)
Basic Editing Pt 2 (05:53)
Basic Editing Pt 3 (06:58)
Advanced Editing Pt 1 (09:05)
Advanced Editing Pt 2 (03:50)
Configuring vi Pt 1 (07:42)
Configuring vi Pt 2 (04:28)

9. The UNIX File System

Introduction to the Unix File System (01:46)
How Files are Stored (10:16)
Understanding Links Pt 1 (06:43)
Understanding Links Pt 2 (07:18)
Linking Files (07:24)
Symbolic Links Pt 1 (06:36)
Symbolic Links Pt 2 (06:00)
UNIX File Types (05:56)
Mounting Pt 1 (06:27)
Mounting Pt 2 (08:12)

10. Communication

Using telnet (08:08)
Using mail (09:28)

11. Customising Your Shell Environment

Changing your Login Shell (05:51)
Environment Variables Pt 1 (07:36)
Environment Variables Pt 2 (06:13)
Your PATH Pt 1 (06:40)
Your PATH Pt 2 (05:31)
Your Prompt (05:33)
Your .profile (07:00)
Command-line Editing (04:41)
Korn Shell Command-line Editing (07:05)
Shell Customisation Options Pt 1 (04:32)
Shell Customisation Options Pt 2 (05:39)
The End (01:46)

download Here
password = tactools.org




Tuesday, January 5, 2010

Linux RedHat Simulation RHCE Course 02

1-Simulation: Directory and File Organization

2-Simulation: Managing Files with Nautilus

3-Simulation: Backing-up your system configuration

Sunday, January 3, 2010

Lesson 06 Determining File Content Part 04

Determining File Content

Files can contain many different types of data. The contents of any given file might be ASCII or binary.

ASCII files include, but are not limited to, these types:

Plain text
Executable shell scripts

C program source code
Mailbox-format text

Binary files include, but are not limited to, these types:

Compiled executables

Compressed data


Sound samples

It’s a good idea to check the file type before opening it, to determine the appropriate command or application to use. Binary file types use an extended character set. Some of these characters are also used to display special characters, sound an error beep at the terminal, clear or flash the screen, or even lock up the terminal display. To check the file type, use the file command.

This is the syntax for the file command:

file [options]

file type

The file command prints its best guess of the type of data contained in a file whose name is given as an argument. It bases its guess on a comparison of the contents of the file with the patterns and offsets in its reference file, /usr/share/magic.

Here are some file types, as reported by the file command:

file types table

Lesson 06 Browsing the Filesystem Graphically Part 03

Using Nautilus

Nautilus is a graphical filesystem browser provided as part of the GNOME graphical environment. Although managing files from the command line can be more versatile and powerful, many people find a graphical interface to be more intuitive.

Nautilus can run in either of two modes:
Spatial mode
Browser mode

Spatial mode is designed to be the most intuitive for new users and is the simplest in terms of user-interface clutter. Windows have a very basic layout with no toolbar; when a directory is double-clicked it opens in its own window. A menu in the lower-left of each window allows the user to list and select parent directories of the one currently displayed. Typing Ctrl-Shift-W closes all parent windows.

Spatial mode

Browser mode provides a more traditional file-manager interface with a side pane on the left that can display file details, a filesystem tree, or even notes the user has taken about the contents of a directory. The categories displayed in the sidebar can be selected from a drop-down menu. Folders open in the same window instead of in new ones, and the user navigates using the standard back, forward, and up icons available in most graphical file managers.

Browser mode

To access Nautilus, use one of the following methods:

Desktop icons
Computer icon
Home directory icon
Removable device icons (CD-ROMs, USB drives, floppy disks)

Menu option
Applications > System Tools > File Browser

The two most common ways to access Nautilus are via desktop icons or a menu option. The desktop icons labeled Computer, and for example, Joe’s Home will each open a Nautilus window in spatial mode. The Home icon opens a window that displays the user’s home directory. The Computer icon opens a window that presents an ordered view of available filesystem resources. This includes the Filesystem icon, which opens a window displaying the root directory; the Network icon, which allows the user to browse the local network for shared disks; and an icon for each removable media filesystem, such as those on CD-ROMs, floppy disks, and USB drives.

Nautilus can be started in browser mode by selecting File Browser from the Applications menu under System Tools in the upper left corner of your GNOME desktop. If you would like Nautilus to always start in browser mode, even when accessed via the desktop icons, open a Nautilus window, select Edit > Preferences from the menus, go to the Behavior tab, select Always open in browser windows and click Close.

Moving and Copying in Nautilus
The following keyboard shortcuts apply to Drag-and-Drop in Nautilus:

Moves on the same filesystem, or copies if on a different filesystem
Drag + Ctrl
Always copies
Drag + Alt
Asks whether to copy, move, or create a symbolic link (alias)
If the destination is on the same filesystem as the source, when you drag and drop files, Nautilus will move the file instead of copying it. To force Nautilus to copy instead of move, drag the file to its destination and press Ctrl before releasing the mouse button. Holding the Alt key instead will make Nautilus ask whether to copy, move, or create a symlink. A symlink, or symbolic link, is an alias to the source file that does not take up extra space on the drive.

Right-clicking an object in Nautilus opens context menu listing actions you can take on that item. The exact contents of the context menu depend on what is being clicked (the "context" of the click). For files or directories, the context menu includes options to copy, cut (move), or rename the selected object. If you cut or copy a file or directory and then right-click your desktop or a directory, then the context menu will include a paste option. Selecting this option will copy or move (depending on whether the source file was copied or cut from its original location) the previously selected object (or objects) into the directory.

Lesson 06 Working with the Filesystem Part02

Changing Directories
The shell prompt displays the last component of the directory name, for example, it displays student01 to represent /home/student01. To move from directory to directory on the system, use the cd command.

The cd command accepts one of two arguments:

An absolute or relative path name
A shortcut representing the directory to which you wish to change
A number of shortcuts are at your disposal for use with the cd command. A dot (.) and a double dot (..) are two shortcuts found in every directory. The . shortcut represents the current directory, whereas the .. shortcut represents the parent directory.

For example, if your current working directory is /home/student01, what would typing the following do?
cd ..
It would move you to the /home directory.

The tilde (~) is an abbreviation for “home directory.” Used by itself, it represents your own home directory. Used as a prefix to another user’s login ID, it represents that user’s home directory.
A dash (-) represents your previous working directory. It’s a handy shortcut to use to switch back and forth between two directories.
For example:

Listing Directory Contents

To list directory contents, use the ls command.

This is the syntax for the ls command:

ls [options] [files_or_directories]


The ls command used without any arguments will list the file and directory names in the current directory.
ls -a includes so-called hidden files and directories whose names begin with a dot (.).

ls lists another file or directory if given as an argument:

Use ls -l for a more detailed “long” listing:

ls -R recursively lists through subdirectories, listing their contents too.

The ls command has many other options. For a full listing, view the man page for the ls command. All options can be used in combination with other ls options.

Copying Files and Directories

To copy files and directories, use the cp command.

The cp command syntax is as follows:

cp [options] file destination

More than one file may be copied at a time if the destination is a directory:

cp [options] file1 file2 destination

The cp command must always be given at least two arguments. When two arguments are given, the first argument is interpreted as the source file and the second argument as the destination. These arguments can be specified as either an absolute or relative path name. If an existing directory is named, a copy of the source file is placed in that directory with the same name as the source. Otherwise, the destination is interpreted as a file name, and a copy of the source file is created with that destination name.

When more than two arguments are provided, all arguments except the last are interpreted as source files. The last argument is interpreted as a destination directory. Copies of the source files are placed, with their original names, in the destination directory.

These are some of the common options of the cp command:

-i Interactive – Asks before overwriting a file
-r Recursive – Recursively copies an entire directory tree
-p Preserve – Preserves permissions, ownership, and time stamps
-a Archive – Copies files and directories recursively (like -r) while preserving permissions (like -p)

Copying Files and Directories: The Destination

When you use the cp command to copy a single file to a destination, cp first checks whether the destination directory exists. If it does exist, cp places a copy of the source file, with the same name as the source file, into the destination directory. If the destination directory does not exist, the source file is assumed to be a new name and cp makes a copy of the source file with the destination name.

As an example, assume the current directory is ~/test and you want to make a copy of file01.txt in a subdirectory of your home directory, named backups.

Moving and Renaming Files and Directories

To move files, use the mv command.

The syntax for the mv command is as follows:

mv [options] file destination

More than one file can be moved at a time, but the destination must be a directory:

mv [options] file1 file2 destination

The mv command must always be given at least two arguments. Aside from a couple of switches, mv and cp function identically. The only difference is that cp results in matching identical files; with mv, the source disappears, leaving only the destination files.

Using Two Arguments

The first argument is taken as the source file. It may or may not be prepended with a relative or absolute path name. The second argument is interpreted as the destination. It may or may not be prepended with a relative or absolute path name.

If it names an existing directory, the source file is moved to that directory with the same name as the source. Otherwise, the destination is interpreted as a file name, and the source file is renamed, moved, or renamed and moved to that destination name.

Using More than Two Arguments

All arguments but the last are interpreted as source files. These may or may not be prepended with a relative or absolute path name.

The last argument is interpreted as a destination directory. It may or may not be prepended with a relative or absolute path name. The source files are moved, with their original file names, to the destination directory.

For example:

Creating and Removing Files

The touch command can be used to create or modify existing files. This command updates a file’s time stamps. For example, if the last time you accessed a file was at 10:02 p.m. and you touch the file at 10:45 p.m., the file will show its last access at 10:45 p.m. If you touch a file that does not exist, an empty file will be created.

To remove files, use the rm command.

This is the syntax for the rm command:

rm [options]

One or more files can be removed at a time. By default, rm will not remove directories. The -r option tells rm to remove files recursively, so it will delete directories and their contents.

To remove a directory and all files and subdirectories it contains, and suppressing and ignoring warnings about removing write-protected files and directories in the process, use rm -rf.

Note: Be very careful not to erase needed files with the -rf option! If necessary, the rm command can be made interactive by using the -i option.

Remember—you cannot undo the effects of the rm command. The only way you can restore files deleted this way is to restore from a backup.

Using rm: Examples

To remove a directory and all its contents, use this command:

rm -r directory

Use -r in combination with -i to recurse through the named directory and to query whether or not each file should be removed. The file will be removed if the user types y or Y:

rm -ri directory
rm: descend into directory ‘include’? Y
rm: descend into directory ‘include/files’ ? Y
rm: remove regular file ‘directory/files/file1.txt’ ? Y
…output truncated…

Use the -f option to suppress warnings about write-protected files. If the example above had used rm -rf instead of rm -ri, the directory tree would have been deleted with no further prompting.


Be very careful using the rm -rf command. If run from the wrong directory, it can do extensive damage to the system, without prompting you for confirmation.

Creating and Removing Directories

To create directories, use the mkdir command. For example, to create a directory called work, use the following:

mkdir work

To remove an empty directory, use rmdir command. For example, to remove the work directory, use this command:

rmdir work

Lesson 06 Filesystem Principles part 01

Filesystem Principles

In this lesson, you will study Linux file hierarchy principles. You will learn about the contents of some important directories, some rules for naming files and directories, and how to display the current working directory. You will also look at the difference between absolute and relative path names.

Linux File Hierarchy Principles

Filesystem Basics

These Linux file hierarchy concepts will be expanded upon in the pages that follow:

• A single-rooted, inverted-tree structure is used for organizing files and directories, including distinct physical volumes, such as floppy disks, CD-ROMs, and multiple hard drives.

• The base of the inverted-tree hierarchy is known as root, or /, and is the top of the file structure.

• A forward (/) slash separates elements of a path name, for example /usr/bin/X11/X.

• Names in the Linux file hierarchy are case sensitive.

• Each shell and process on the system has a designated current or working directory.

• Two dots (..) refer to the parent directory of any particular directory, which is one level up in the file hierarchy.

• One dot (.) refers to the current directory.

• Files and directories whose names begin with a dot (.) are hidden, that is, they are not displayed by default in file-name listings.

• A user's path is a list of directories that are searched for commands typed at the command line.

Linux uses the forward slash (/) to separate elements of a path name, whereas DOS (Windows) uses a back slash (\).

Present Working Directory

The present working directory is the directory in which you are currently working. To view the present working directory, use the pwd command. When you type the pwd command at the command line, the absolute path to your current working directory is displayed. For example

File and Directory Names
With the default filesystem, file names may have up to 255 characters. (Depending on the configuration of your system, different restrictions may apply.)
File names generally consist of letters, numbers, and certain punctuation marks. All other characters, except the forward slash (/), are valid.
Some special characters are best avoided in file names. Avoid the following: <, >, ?, *, and ". Also avoid using tabs, spaces, and other non-printable characters.
If you do need to access a file with special characters, enclose the file name in quotation marks.

For example: ls -l "file name with spaces.txt"

If you remove the quotation marks from the above example, you would be asking the system to list four different files.
Also keep in mind that file names are case sensitive. This means that FILE is different from file and File. Once again, although you can create these files, it may be wise to avoid doing so as it may cause confusion in the future.

Absolute and Relative Path Names

The location of a directory or file can be specified by either of two arguments: its absolute path name or its relative path name. An absolute path name has these characteristics:
Begins with a forward slash (/)
Contains the complete name of each directory that must be traversed from the root file system up to the object being named
Can be used anytime, and is valid regardless of the current directory

A relative path name has these characteristics:
Does not begin with a forward slash (/)
Specifies the location of the file or directory relative to the current working directory
Is usually shorter than the respective absolute path name

Linux redhat simulation RHCE Course 01

1-Simulation: Logging in and using basic Linux commands

2-Simulation: Using the Help Tools

Saturday, January 2, 2010

Linux Sabily

What is Sabily ?

Sabily is an operating system, like MS Windows or Mac OS X. Without an operating system, a computer is unusable, and Windows is not the only OS available! (though you often don't have the choice, that's why we are working hard to fix the bug number one)

I already have Windows, why would I use Sabily ?
Because Sabily is free, already includes all software you need in your everyday tasks, and is customized specifically for Muslims. And even if you didn't buy Windows, you should not use pirated copies because then you are still supporting Microsoft by adding to the impression it's the only OS available.

It should be a tremendous work to develop an operating system?
Actually we don't start from scratch, we use the Ubuntu operating system as a groundwork. Ubuntu is a GNU/Linux distribution whose goal is to provide an easy-to-use, up-to-date, stable and free system, also for companies. Sabily customizes Ubuntu by removing, modifying and adding software, and also customizes the graphic design to make a system adapted to Muslims.

Is there a company like Microsoft which develops Sabily?
No there isn't, just a communauty of voluntaries coming from all over the world (France, Tunisia, Egypt, Indonesia etc.). You can as well participate, as a developer, a graphic designer, a tester or if you just want to share your ideas.

What are the main features of Sabily?
The main software are: Zekr and Mus-haf Othman (Quran study tools), Minbar and Firefox-praytimes (prayer times applications), Monajat (application that popups prayers every predetermined time), Hijra (islamic calendar) and WebStrict (parental control tool). Arabic language is also well supported. And of course the graphic design is also customized (see screenshots).

What other software are included in Sabily?
OpenOffice (word processor, spreasheet, presentation), Firefox (web browser), Pidgin (instant messaging), F-spot (photos management), Gimp (image manipulation program) and other multimedia software (video/audio). All of this in included in the "small" version of Sabily, but the "full" version contains dozens of other software! (educational software, tools and entire Quran recitations, see the full list here)

Sabily seems very interesting, what should I do to use it?
You have to download the ISO file and to burn it on a DVD, then to start your computer from the DVD. You will have the choice to test or to install the system. In a first time we advise you to test it because it is safe for your computer, nothing will be written on your hard disk. You can even test Sabily directly from Windows, by using a Virtual Box image.

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